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Rule 4-19

RULE 4 - SECTION 19
FOUL

A foul is an infraction of the rules which is charged and is penalized.

ART. 1 . . . A personal foul is a player foul which involves illegal contact with an opponent while the ball is live, which hinders an opponent from performing normal defensive and offensive movements. A personal foul also includes contact by or on an airborne shooter when the ball is dead.

NOTE: Contact after the ball has become dead is incidental unless it is ruled intentional or flagrant or is committed by or on an airborne shooter.

ART. 2 . . . A common foul is a personal foul which is neither flagrant nor intentional nor committed against a player trying or tapping for a field goal nor a part of a double, simultaneous or multiple foul.

ART. 3 . . . An intentional foul is a personal or technical foul that may or may not be premeditated and is not based solely on the severity of the act. Intentional fouls include, but are not limited to:

a. Contact that neutralizes an opponent’s obvious advantageous position.
b. Contact away from the ball with an opponent who is clearly not involved with a play.
c. Contact that is not a legitimate attempt to play the ball/player specifically designed to stop the clock or keep it from starting.
d. Excessive contact with an opponent while the ball is live or until an airborne shooter returns to the floor.
e. Contact with a thrower-in as in 9-2-10 Penalty 4.

ART. 4 . . . A flagrant foul may be a personal or technical foul of a violent nature involves, but is not limited to violent contact such as: striking, kicking and kneeing. If technical, it involves dead-ball contact or non-contact at any time which is extreme or persistent, vulgar or abusive conduct. Fighting is a flagrant act.

ART. 5 . . . A technical foul is:

a. A foul by a non-player.
b. A non-contact foul by a player.
c. An intentional or flagrant contact foul while the ball is dead, except a foul by an airborne shooter.
d. A direct technical, charged to the head coach because of his/her actions, as in 10-6.
e. An indirect technical, charged to the head coach as a result of a bench technical foul being assessed to team bench personnel, as in 10-5.

ART. 6 . . . A player-control foul is a common foul committed by a player while he/she is in control of the ball or by an airborne shooter.

ART. 7 . . . A team-control foul is a common foul committed by a member of the team that has team control or by a member of the throw-in team from the start of the throw-in until player control is obtained inbounds.

ART. 8 . . . Double fouls:

a. A double personal foul is a situation in which two opponents commit personal fouls against each other at approximately the same time.
b. A double technical foul is a situation in which two opponents commit technical fouls against each other at approximately the same time.

ART. 9 . . . A false double foul is a situation in which there are fouls by both teams, the second of which occurs before the clock is started following the first, and such that at least one of the attributes of a double foul is absent.

ART. 10 . . . A simultaneous foul (personal or technical) by opponents is a situation in which there is a foul by both teams which occurs at approximately the same time, but are not committed by opponents against each other.

ART. 11 . . . A multiple foul is a situation in which two or more teammates commit personal fouls against the same opponent at approximately the same time.

ART. 12 . . . A false multiple foul is a situation in which there are two or more fouls by the same team and the last foul is committed before the clock is started following the first, and at least one of the attributes of a multiple foul is absent.

ART. 13 . . . A team foul is any personal foul or technical foul (except indirect technical fouls) which is charged to either team. All team fouls are counted to reach the bonus free throw.

ART. 14 . . . An unsporting foul is a non-contact technical foul which consists of unfair, unethical, dishonorable conduct or any behavior not in accordance with the spirit of fair play.

Source: NFHS Basketball Rules Book 2019-2020

All Rights Reserved. A Better Official 2020.

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