Rule 4 - Definitions


NFHS 4-1

SECTION 1 - AIRBORNE SHOOTER

ART. 1 . . . An airborne shooter is a player who has released the ball on a try for a goal or has tapped the ball and has not returned to the floor.
ART. 2 . . . The airborne shooter is considered to be in the act of shooting.


NFHS 4-2

SECTION 2 - ALTERNATING POSSESSION AND ARROW

ART. 1 . . . Alternating possession is the method of putting the ball in play by a throw-in as outlined in 6-4.
ART. 2 . . . The possession arrow is a device located at the scorer’s table which is used to indicate the direction of a team’s basket for the alternating-possession procedure.


NFHS 4-3

SECTION 3 - SETTING DIRECTION OF INITIAL ARROW

Alternating-possession control is established and the initial direction of the possession arrow is set toward the opponent’s basket when:
ART. 1 . . . A player secures control of the ball, as after the jump ball beginning the game and each extra period.
ART. 2 . . . The ball is placed at the disposal of the free thrower after a - common foul when the bonus free throw is in effect.
ART. 3 . . . The ball is placed at the disposal of the thrower after:
a. A violation during or following the jump before a player secures control.
b. The free throws for a non-common foul.
c. A common foul before the bonus free throw is in effect. NOTE: This procedure is used only to establish the alternating-possession procedure. See 6-4 for using the procedure and reversing the possession arrow.


NFHS 4-4

SECTION 4 - BALL LOCATION, AT DISPOSAL

ART. 1 . . . A ball which is in contact with a player or with the court is in the backcourt if either the ball or the player (either player if the ball is touching more than one) is touching the backcourt.
ART. 2 . . . A ball which is in contact with a player or with the court is in the frontcourt if neither the ball nor the player is touching the backcourt.
ART. 3 . . . A ball which is in flight retains the same location as when it was last in contact with a player or the court.
ART. 4 . . . A ball which touches a player or an official is the same as the ball touching the floor at that individual’s location.
ART. 5 . . . A ball which touches the front faces or edges of the backboard is treated the same as touching the floor inbounds; see also 4-15-1.
ART. 6 . . . During a dribble from backcourt to frontcourt, the ball is in the frontcourt when the ball and both feet of the dribbler touch the court entirely in the frontcourt.
ART. 7 . . . A ball is at the disposal of a player when it is:
a. Handed to a thrower or free thrower.
b. Caught by a thrower or free thrower after it is bounced to him/her.
c. Placed on the floor at the spot.
d. Available to a player after a goal and the official begins the throw-in count.


NFHS 4-5

SECTION 5 - BASKET, CHOICE

ART. 1 . . . A team’s own basket is the one into which its players try to throw or tap the ball.
ART. 2 . . . Each team’s basket for practice before the game and for the first half shall be the one farther from its team bench.
ART. 3 . . . The teams shall change baskets for the second half.
ART. 4 . . . If by mistake the officials permit a team to go the wrong - direction, when discovered all points scored, fouls committed, and time consumed shall count as if each team had gone the proper direction. Play shall resume with each team going the proper direction based on bench location.


NFHS 4-6

SECTION 6 BASKET INTERFERENCE

Basket interference occurs when a player:
ART. 1 . . . Touches the ball or any part of the basket (including the net) while the ball is on or within either basket.
ART. 2 . . . Touches the ball while any part of the ball is within the imaginary cylinder which has the basket ring as its lower base. EXCEPTION: In Arts. 1 or 2, if a player has his/her hand legally in contact with the ball, it is not a violation if such contact with the ball continues after it enters the imaginary cylinder or if in such action, the player touches the basket. Dunking or stuffing is legal and is not basket interference.
ART. 3 . . . Touches the ball outside the cylinder while reaching through the basket from below.
ART. 4 . . . Pulls down a movable ring so that it contacts the ball before the ring returns to its original position.


NFHS 4-7

SECTION 7 BLOCKING, CHARGING

ART. 1 . . . Blocking is illegal personal contact which impedes the progress of an opponent with or without the ball.
ART. 2 . . . Charging is illegal personal contact caused by pushing or moving into an opponent’s torso.
a. A player who is moving with the ball is required to stop or change direction to avoid contact if a defensive player has obtained a legal guarding position in his/her path.
b. If a guard has obtained a legal guarding position, the player with the ball must get his/her head and shoulders past the torso of the defensive player. If contact occurs on the torso of the defensive player, the dribbler is responsible for the contact.
c. There must be reasonable space between two defensive players or a defensive player and a boundary line to allow the dribbler to continue in his/her path. If there is less than 3 feet of space, the dribbler has the greater responsibility for the contact.
d. The player with the ball may not push the torso of the guard to gain an advantage to pass, shoot or dribble.


NFHS 4-8

SECTION 8 BONUS FREE THROW

ART. 1 . . . A bonus free throw is the second free throw awarded for a - common foul (except a player-control or team-control foul) as follows:
a. Beginning with a team’s seventh foul in each half and for the eighth and ninth foul, the bonus is awarded only if the first free throw is successful.
b. Beginning with a team’s 10th foul in each half, two free throws are awarded whether or not the first free throw is successful. NOTE: Rule 2-10-1 a, b are applied if a merited free throw is not awarded or an unmerited free throw is awarded.
ART. 2 . . . Player-control, team-control and technical fouls are counted as team fouls to reach the bonus. When a technical foul is also charged indirectly to the head coach, it counts only as one team foul.


NFHS 4-9

SECTION 9 BOUNDARY LINES

ART. 1 . . . Boundary lines of the court consist of end lines and sidelines.
ART. 2 . . . The inside edges of these lines define the inbounds and out-of-bounds areas.


NFHS 4-10

SECTION 10 CLOSELY GUARDED

A closely guarded situation occurs when a player in control of the ball in his/her team’s frontcourt, is continuously guarded by any opponent who is within six feet of the player who is holding or dribbling the ball. The distance shall be measured from the forward foot/feet of the defender to the forward foot/feet of the ball handler. A closely guarded count shall be terminated when the offensive player in control of the ball gets his/her head and shoulders past the defensive player.


NFHS 4-11

SECTION 11 CONTINUOUS MOTION

ART. 1 . . . Continuous motion applies to a try or tap for field goals and free throws, but it has no significance unless there is a foul by any defensive player during the interval which begins when the habitual throwing movement starts a try or with the touching on a tap and ends when the ball is clearly in flight.
ART. 2 . . . If an opponent fouls after a player has started a try for goal, he/she is permitted to complete the customary arm movement, and if pivoting or stepping when fouled, may complete the usual foot or body movement in any activity while holding the ball. These privileges are granted only when the usual throwing motion has started before the foul occurs and before the ball is in flight.
ART. 3 . . . Continuous motion does not apply if a teammate fouls after a player has started a try for a goal and before the ball is in flight. The ball becomes dead immediately.


NFHS 4-12

SECTION 12 CONTROL, PLAYER AND TEAM

ART. 1 . . . A player is in control of the ball when he/she is holding or - dribbling a live ball. There is no player control when, during a jump ball, a jumper catches the ball prior to the ball touching the floor or a non-jumper, or during an interrupted dribble.
ART. 2 . . . A team is in control of the ball:
a. When a player of the team is in control.
b. While a live ball is being passed among teammates.
c. During an interrupted dribble.
d. When a player of the team has disposal of the ball for a throw-in.
ART. 3 . . . Team control continues until:
a. The ball is in flight during a try or tap for goal.
b. An opponent secures control.
c. The ball becomes dead.
ART. 4 . . . While the ball remains live a loose ball always remains in control of the team whose player last had control, unless it is a try or tap for goal.
ART. 5 . . . Team control does not exist during a jump ball or the touching of a rebound, but is re-established when a player secures control.
ART. 6 . . . Neither team control nor player control exists during a dead ball, a jump ball or when the ball is in flight during a try or tap for goal.


NFHS 4-13

SECTION 13 COURT AREAS

ART. 1 . . . A team’s frontcourt consists of that part of the court between its end line and the nearer edge of the division line, including its basket and the inbounds part of the backboard.
ART. 2 . . . A team’s backcourt consists of the rest of the court, including the entire division line and the opponent’s basket and inbounds part of the - opponent’s backboard.


NFHS 4-14

SECTION 14 DISQUALIFIED PLAYER

ART. 1 . . . A disqualified player is one who is barred from further participation in the game because of having committed his/her fifth foul (personal and technical), two technical fouls or a flagrant foul.
ART. 2 . . . A player is officially disqualified and becomes bench personnel when the coach is notified by an official.


NFHS 4-15

SECTION 15 DRIBBLE

ART. 1 . . . A dribble is ball movement caused by a player in control who bats (intentionally strikes the ball with the hand(s)) or pushes the ball to the floor once or several times. It is not a part of a dribble when the ball touches a player’s own backboard.
ART. 2 . . . During a dribble the ball may be batted into the air provided it is permitted to strike the floor before the ball is touched again with the hand(s).
ART. 3 . . . The dribble begins by pushing, throwing or batting the ball to the floor before the pivot foot is lifted.
ART. 4 . . . The dribble ends when: a. The dribbler catches or causes the ball to come to rest in one or both hands. b. The dribbler palms/carries the ball by allowing it to come to rest in one or both hands.
c. The dribbler simultaneously touches the ball with both hands.
d. The ball touches or is touched by an opponent and causes the dribbler to lose control.
e. The ball becomes dead.
ART. 5 . . . An interrupted dribble occurs when the ball is loose after - deflecting off the dribbler or after it momentarily gets away from the dribbler. There is no player control during an interrupted dribble.
ART. 6 . . . During an interrupted dribble:
a. A closely guarded count shall not be started or shall be terminated.
b. A player-control foul cannot be committed, but a team-control foul still may be committed.
c. A time-out request shall not be granted.
d. Out-of-bounds violation does not apply on the player involved in the interrupted dribble.


NFHS 4-16

SECTION 16 DUNKING

Dunking is the driving, forcing, pushing or attempting to force a ball through the basket with the hand(s).


NFHS 4-17

SECTION 17 EXTRA PERIOD

An extra period is the extension of playing time necessary to break a tie score. The length of each extra period is four minutes.


NFHS 4-18

SECTION 18 FIGHTING

Fighting is a flagrant act and can occur when the ball is dead or live. Fighting includes, but is not limited to combative acts such as:
ART. 1 . . . An attempt to strike, punch or kick by using a fist, hands, arms, legs or feet regardless of whether contact is made.
ART. 2 . . . An attempt to instigate a fight by committing an unsporting act that causes a person to retaliate by fighting.


NFHS 4-19

SECTION 19 FOUL

A foul is an infraction of the rules which is charged and is penalized.
ART. 1 . . . A personal foul is a player foul which involves illegal contact with an opponent while the ball is live, which hinders an opponent from performing normal defensive and offensive movements. A personal foul also includes contact by or on an airborne shooter when the ball is dead. NOTE: Contact after the ball has become dead is incidental unless it is ruled intentional or flagrant or is committed by or on an airborne shooter.
ART. 2 . . . A common foul is a personal foul which is neither flagrant nor - intentional nor committed against a player trying or tapping for a field goal nor a part of a double, simultaneous or multiple foul.
ART. 3 . . . An intentional foul is a personal or technical foul that may or may not be premeditated and is not based solely on the severity of the act. Intentional fouls include, but are not limited to:
a. Contact that neutralizes an opponent's obvious advantageous position.
b. Contact away from the ball with an opponent who is clearly not involved with a play.
c. Contact that is not a legitimate attempt to play the ball/player specifically designed to stop the clock or keep it from starting.
d. Excessive contact with an opponent while the ball is live or until an airborne shooter returns to the floor. e. Contact with a thrower-in as in 9-2-10 Penalty 4.
ART. 4 . . . A flagrant foul may be a personal or technical foul of a violent nature involves, but is not limited to violent contact such as: striking, kicking and kneeing. If technical, it involves dead-ball contact or non-contact at any time which is extreme or persistent, vulgar or abusive conduct. Fighting is a flagrant act.
ART. 5 . . . A technical foul is:
a. A foul by a non-player.
b. A non-contact foul by a player.
c. An intentional or flagrant contact foul while the ball is dead, except a foul by an airborne shooter.
d. A direct technical, charged to the head coach because of his/her actions, as in 10-6.
e. An indirect technical, charged to the head coach as a result of a bench technical foul being assessed to team bench personnel, as in 10- 5.
ART. 6 . . . A player-control foul is a common foul committed by a player while he/she is in control of the ball or by an airborne shooter.
ART. 7 . . . A team-control foul is a common foul committed by a member of the team that has team control or by a member of the throw-in team from the start of the throw-in until player control is obtained inbounds.
ART. 8 . . . Double fouls:
a. A double personal foul is a situation in which two opponents commit personal fouls against each other at approximately the same time.
b. A double technical foul is a situation in which two opponents commit technical fouls against each other at approximately the same time.
ART. 9 . . . A false double foul is a situation in which there are fouls by both teams, the second of which occurs before the clock is started following the first, and such that at least one of the attributes of a double foul is absent.
ART. 10 . . . A simultaneous foul (personal or technical) by opponents is a situation in which there is a foul by both teams which occurs at approximately the same time, but are not committed by opponents against each other.
ART. 11 . . . A multiple foul is a situation in which two or more teammates commit personal fouls against the same opponent at approximately the same time.
ART. 12 . . . A false multiple foul is a situation in which there are two or more fouls by the same team and the last foul is committed before the clock is started following the first, and at least one of the attributes of a multiple foul is absent.
ART. 13 . . . A team foul is any personal foul or technical foul (except indirect technical fouls) which is charged to either team. All team fouls are counted to reach the bonus free throw.
ART. 14 . . . An unsporting foul is a non-contact technical foul which consists of unfair, unethical, dishonorable conduct or any behavior not in accordance with the spirit of fair play.


NFHS 4-20

SECTION 20 FREE THROW

ART. 1 . . . A free throw is the opportunity given a player to score one point by an unhindered try for goal from within the free-throw semicircle and behind the free-throw line.
ART. 2 . . . The free throw begins when the ball is at the disposal of the free thrower.
ART. 3 . . . The free throw ends when the try is successful, when it is certain the try will not be successful, when the try touches the floor or any player, or when the ball becomes dead.


NFHS 4-21

SECTION 21 FUMBLE

A fumble is the accidental loss of player control when the ball unintentionally drops or slips from a player’s grasp.


NFHS 4-22

SECTION 22 GOALTENDING

Goaltending occurs when a player touches the ball during a field-goal try or tap while the ball is in its downward flight entirely above the basket ring level, has the possibility of entering the basket in flight and is not touching the basket cylinder or a player touches the ball outside the cylinder during a free-throw attempt.


NFHS 4-23

SECTION 23 - GUARDING

ART. 1 . . . Guarding is the act of legally placing the body in the path of an offensive opponent. There is no minimum distance required between the guard and opponent, but the maximum is 6 feet when closely guarded. Every player is entitled to a spot on the playing court provided such player gets there first without illegally contacting an opponent. A player who extends an arm, shoulder, hip or leg into the path of an opponent is not considered to have a legal position if contact occurs.
ART. 2 . . . To obtain an initial legal guarding position:
a. The guard must have both feet touching the playing court.
b. The front of the guard’s torso must be facing the opponent.
ART. 3 . . . After the initial legal guarding position is obtained:
a. The guard may have one or both feet on the playing court or be airborne, provided he/she has inbound status.
b. The guard is not required to continue facing the opponent.
c. The guard may move laterally or obliquely to maintain position, - provided it is not toward the opponent when contact occurs.
d. The guard may raise hands or jump within his/her own vertical plane.
e. The guard may turn or duck to absorb the shock of imminent contact.
ART. 4 . . . Guarding an opponent with the ball or a stationary opponent - without the ball:
a. No time or distance is required to obtain an initial legal position.
b. If the opponent with the ball is airborne, the guard must have obtained legal position before the opponent left the floor.
ART. 5 . . . Guarding a moving opponent without the ball:
a. Time and distance are factors required to obtain an initial legal position.
b. The guard must give the opponent the time and/or distance to avoid contact.
c. The distance need not be more than two strides.
d. If the opponent is airborne, the guard must have obtained legal position before the opponent left the floor.


NFHS 4-24

SECTION 24 - HANDS AND ARMS, LEGAL AND ILLEGAL USE

ART. 1 . . . It is legal to extend the arms vertically above the shoulders and need not be lowered to avoid contact with an opponent when the action of the opponent causes contact. This legal use of the arms and hands usually occurs when guarding the player making a throw-in, the player with the ball in pressing tactics and a player with the ball who is maneuvering to try for goal by pivoting, jumping, etc.
ART. 2 . . . It is legal use of hands to reach to block or slap the ball controlled by a dribbler or a player throwing for goal or a player holding it and accidentally hitting the hand of the opponent when it is in contact with the ball.
ART. 3 . . . It is legal to hold the hands and arms in front of the face or body for protection and to absorb force from an imminent charge by an opponent. This same protective use of the arms and hands occurs when a player who has set a screen outside the opponent’s visual field is about to be run into by the player being screened. The action, however, should be a recoil action rather than a pushing action.
ART. 4 . . . It is not legal to use hands and arms or hips and shoulders to force his/her way through a screen or to hold the screener and then to push him/her aside in order to maintain a guarding position relative to his/her - opponent.
ART. 5 . . . It is not legal to use hands on an opponent which in any way inhibits the freedom of movement of the opponent or acts as an aid to a player in starting or stopping.
ART. 6 . . . It is not legal to extend the arms fully or partially in a position other than vertical so that the freedom of movement of an opponent is hindered when contact with the arms occurs. The extension of the elbows when the hands are on the hips or when the hands are held near the chest or when the arms are held more or less horizontally are examples of the illegal positions used.
ART. 7 . . . It is not legal to use the hand and/or forearm to prevent an - opponent from attacking the ball during a dribble or when throwing for goal.
ART. 8 . . . It is not legal to swing arms and elbows excessively. This occurs when:
a. Arms and elbows are swung about while using the shoulders as pivots, and the speed of the extended arms and elbows is in excess of the rest of the body as it rotates on the hips or on the pivot foot.
b. The aggressiveness with which the arms and elbows are swung could cause injury to another player if contacted.
Using this description as a basis, an official will promptly and unhesitatingly rule such action with arms and elbows a violation.
ART. 9 . . . It is not legal to lock arms or grasp a teammate(s) in an effort to restrict the movement of an opponent.


NFHS 4-25

SECTION 25 - HELD BALL

A held ball occurs when:
ART. 1 . . . Opponents have their hands so firmly on the ball that control - cannot be obtained without undue roughness.
ART. 2 . . . An opponent places his/her hand(s) on the ball and prevents an airborne player from throwing the ball or releasing it on a try.


NFHS 4-26

SECTION 26 - HOLDING

Holding is illegal personal contact with an opponent which interferes with his/her freedom of movement.


NFHS 4-27

SECTION 27 - INCIDENTAL CONTACT

Incidental contact is contact with an opponent which is permitted and which does not constitute a foul.
ART. 1 . . . The mere fact that contact occurs does not constitute a foul. When 10 players are moving rapidly in a limited area, some contact is certain to occur.
ART. 2 . . . Contact, which may result when opponents are in equally favorable positions to perform normal defensive or offensive movements, should not be considered illegal, even though the contact may be severe.
ART. 3 . . . Similarly, contact which does not hinder the opponent from - participating in normal defensive or offensive movements should be considered incidental.
ART. 4 . . . A player who is screened within his/her visual field is expected to avoid contact with the screener by stopping or going around the screener. In cases of screens outside the visual field, the opponent may make inadvertent contact with the screener, and such contact is to be ruled incidental contact, provided the screener is not displaced if he/she has the ball.
ART. 5 . . . If, however, a player approaches an opponent from behind or from a position from which he/she has no reasonable chance to play the ball without making contact with the opponent, the responsibility is on the player in the unfavorable position.


NFHS 4-28

SECTION 28 - JUMP BALL

ART. 1 . . . A jump ball is a method of putting the ball into play to start the game and each extra period by tossing it up between two opponents in the center restraining circle, or as in 7-3 before the alternating-possession procedure has been established.
ART. 2 . . . The jump ball begins when the ball leaves the official’s hand(s) and ends when the touched ball contacts a non-jumper, an official, the floor, a basket or backboard.

NFHS 4-29

SECTION 29 KICKING THE BALL

Kicking the ball is intentionally striking it with any part of the leg or foot.


NFHS 4-30

SECTION 30 MULTIPLE THROW

A multiple throw is a succession of free throws attempted by the same team.


NFHS 4-31

SECTION 31 PASS

A pass is movement of the ball caused by a player who throws, bats or rolls the ball to another player.


NFHS 4-32

SECTION 32 PENALTY

A penalty is an action assessed by an official to a player or team for a rules infraction. See Rules 9 and 10.


NFHS 4-33

SECTION 33 PIVOT

A pivot takes place when a player who is holding the ball steps once, or more than once, in any direction with the same foot while the other foot, called the pivot foot, is kept at its point of contact with the floor.


NFHS 4-34

SECTION 34 PLAYERS/ BENCH PERSONNEL/ SUBSTITUTES/ TEAM MEMBERS

ART. 1 . . . A player is one of five team members who are legally on the court at any given time, except intermission.
ART. 2 . . . Bench personnel are all individuals who are part of or affiliated with a team, including, but not limited to: substitutes, coaches, manager(s) and statistician(s). During an intermission, all team members are bench personnel for the purpose of penalizing unsporting behavior.
ART. 3 . . . A substitute becomes a player when he/she legally enters the court. If entry is not legal, the substitute becomes a player when the ball becomes live. A player becomes bench personnel after his/her substitute becomes a player or after notification of the coach following his/her disqualification.
ART. 4 . . . A team member is a member of bench personnel who is in uniform and is eligible to become a player.


NFHS 4-35

SECTION 35 PLAYER LOCATION

ART. 1 . . . The location of a player or non-player is determined by where the person is touching the floor as far as being:
a. Inbounds or out-of-bounds.
b. In the frontcourt or backcourt.
c. Outside (behind/beyond) or inside the three-point field-goal line.
ART. 2 . . . When a player is touching the backcourt, out of bounds or the three-point line, the player is located in backcourt, out of bounds or inside the three-point line, respectively.
ART. 3 . . . The location of an airborne player with reference to the three - factors of Article 1 is the same as at the time such player was last in contact with the floor or an extension of the floor, such as a bleacher.


NFHS 4-36

SECTION 36 POINT OF INTERRUPTION

ART. 1 . . . Method of resuming play due to an official's inadvertent whistle, an interrupted game, as in 5-4-3, a correctable error, as in 2-10-6, a double personal, double technical or simultaneous foul, as in 4-19-8 and 4-19-10.
ART. 2 . . . Play shall be resumed by one of the following methods:
a. A throw-in to the team that was in control at an out-of-bounds spot nearest to where the ball was located when the interruption occurred.
b. A free throw or a throw-in when the interruption occurred during this activity or if a team is entitled to such.
c. A jump ball or alternating-possession throw-in when neither team is in control and no goal, infraction, nor end of quarter/extra period is involved when the game is interrupted.
ART. 3 . . . When the ball remains live after a violation or foul (as in 4-19- 8) during a try for goal, the point of interruption is determined to be when the ball becomes dead following the violation or foul.


NFHS 4-37

SECTION 37 REBOUNDING

ART. 1 . . . Rebounding is an attempt by any player to secure possession of the ball following a try or tap for goal. In a rebounding situation there is no player or team control.
ART. 2 . . . To obtain or maintain legal rebounding position, a player may not:
a. Displace, charge or push an opponent.
b. Extend shoulders, hips, knees or extend the arms or elbows fully or partially in a position other than vertical so that the freedom of movement of an opponent is hindered when contact with the arms or elbows occurs.
c. Bend his/her body in an abnormal position to hold or displace an opponent.
d. Violate the principle of verticality.
ART. 3 . . . Every player is entitled to a spot on the playing court, provided the player gets there first without illegally contacting an opponent.


NFHS 4-38

SECTION 38 RESUMPTION-OF-PLAY PROCEDURE

The resumption-of-play procedure is used to prevent delay in putting the ball in play when a throw-in team does not make a thrower available or following a time-out or intermission (unless either team is not on the court to start the second half) as in 7-5-1 and 8-1-2. The procedure results in a violation instead of a technical foul for initial delay in specific situations.


NFHS 4-39

SECTION 39 RULE

ART. 1 . . . A rule is one of a group of regulations which governs the game.
ART. 2 . . . A game regulation, commonly called a rule, sometimes states or implies that the ball is dead or a foul or violation is involved. If it does not, it is assumed the ball is live and no foul or violation has occurred to affect the situation.
ART. 3 . . . A single infraction is not complicated by a second infraction unless so stated or implied.


NFHS 4-40

SECTION 40 SCREEN

ART. 1 . . . A screen is legal action by a player who, without causing contact, delays or prevents an opponent from reaching a desired position.
ART. 2 . . . To establish a legal screening position:
a. The screener may face any direction.
b. Time and distance are relevant.
c. The screener must be stationary, except when both the screener and opponent are moving in the same path and the same direction.
d. The screener must stay within his/her vertical plane with a stance approximately shoulder width apart.
ART. 3 . . . When screening a stationary opponent from the front or side (within the visual field), the screener may be anywhere short of contact.
ART. 4 . . . When screening a stationary opponent from behind (outside the visual field), the screener must allow the opponent one normal step backward without contact.
ART. 5 . . . When screening a moving opponent, the screener must allow the opponent time and distance to avoid contact by stopping or changing direction. The speed of the player to be screened will determine where the screener may take his/her stationary position. The position will vary and may be one to two normal steps or strides from the opponent.
ART. 6 . . . When screening an opponent who is moving in the same path and direction as the screener, the player behind is responsible if contact is made because the player in front slows up or stops and the player behind overruns his/her opponent.
ART. 7 . . . A player who is screened within his/her visual field is expected to avoid contact by going around the screener. In cases of screens outside the visual field, the opponent may make inadvertent contact with the screener and if the opponent is running rapidly, the contact may be severe. Such a case is to be ruled as incidental contact provided the opponent stops or attempts to stop on contact and moves around the screen, and provided the screener is not displaced if he/she has the ball.
ART. 8 . . . A player may not use the arms, hands, hips or shoulders to force his/her way through a screen or to hold the screener and then push the screener aside in order to maintain a guarding position on an opponent.


NFHS 4-41

SECTION 41 SHOOTING, TRY, TAP

ART. 1 . . . The act of shooting begins simultaneously with the start of the try or tap and ends when the ball is clearly in flight, and includes the airborne shooter.
ART. 2 . . . A try for field goal is an attempt by a player to score two or three points by throwing the ball into a team’s own basket. A player is trying for goal when the player has the ball and in the official’s judgment is throwing or attempting to throw for goal. It is not essential that the ball leave the player’s hand as a foul could prevent release of the ball.
ART. 3 . . . The try starts when the player begins the motion which habitually precedes the release of the ball.
ART. 4 . . . The try ends when the throw is successful, when it is certain the throw is unsuccessful, when the thrown ball touches the floor or when the ball becomes dead.
ART. 5 . . . A tap for goal is the contacting of the ball with any part of a - player’s hand(s) in an attempt to direct the ball into his/her basket.
ART. 6 . . . A tap shall be considered the same as a try for field goal, except as in 5-2-5.
ART. 7 . . . The tap starts when the player’s hand(s) touches the ball.
ART. 8 . . . The tap ends in exactly the same manner as a try.


NFHS 4-42

SECTION 42 THROW-IN, THROWER, DESIGNATED SPOT

ART. 1 . . . The thrower is the player who attempts to make a throw-in.
ART. 2 . . . A throw-in is a method of putting the ball in play from out-of-bounds.
ART. 3 . . . The throw-in and the throw-in count begin when the ball is at the disposal of a player of the team entitled to it.
ART. 4 . . . The throw-in count ends when the ball is released by the thrower so the passed ball goes directly into the court.
ART. 5 . . . The throw-in ends when:
a. The passed ball touches or is touched by another player inbounds.
b. The passed ball touches or is touched by another player out-of-bounds, except as in 7-5-7.
c. The throw-in team commits a throw-in violation.
ART. 6 . . . The designated throw-in spot is 3 feet wide with no depth - limitation and is established and signaled by the official prior to putting the ball at the thrower’s disposal. NOTE: The thrower must keep one foot on or over the designated spot until the ball is released. The traveling and dribbling rules are not in effect for a throw-in.


NFHS 4-43

SECTION 43 TIME-OUT

ART. 1 . . . A 60-second time-out charged to a team is a maximum of one minute in length. A 30-second time-out charged to a team is a maximum 30 seconds in length. A warning is sounded 15 seconds prior to the expiration of the 30 or 60 seconds.
ART. 2 . . . A successive time-out is one which is granted to either team before the clock has started following the previous time-out.


NFHS 4-44

SECTION 44 TRAVELING

Traveling is moving a foot or feet in any direction in excess of prescribed limits while holding the ball. The limits on foot movements are as follows:
ART. 1 . . . A player who catches the ball with both feet on the floor may pivot using either foot. When one foot is lifted, the other is the pivot foot.
ART. 2 . . . A player who catches the ball while moving or dribbling may stop and establish a pivot foot as follows:
a. If both feet are off the floor and the player lands:
1. Simultaneously on both feet, either foot may be the pivot.
2. On one foot followed by the other, the first foot to touch is the pivot.
3. On one foot, the player may jump off that foot and simultaneously land on both. Neither foot can be a pivot in this case.
b. If one foot is on the floor: 1. It is the pivot when the other foot touches in a step. 2. The player may jump off that foot and simultaneously land on both. Neither foot can be a pivot in this case.
ART. 3 . . . After coming to a stop and establishing a pivot foot:
a. The pivot foot may be lifted, but not returned to the floor, before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal.
b. If the player jumps, neither foot may be returned to the floor before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal.
c. The pivot foot may not be lifted before the ball is released to start a dribble.
ART. 4 . . . After coming to a stop when neither foot can be a pivot:
a. One or both feet may be lifted, but may not be returned to the floor before the ball is released on a pass or try for goal.
b. Neither foot may be lifted before the ball is released, to start a dribble.
ART. 5 . . . A player holding the ball:
a. May not touch the floor with a knee or any other part of the body other than hand or foot.
b. After gaining control while on the floor and touching with other than hand or foot, may not attempt to get up or stand.


NFHS 4-45

SECTION 45 VERTICALITY

Verticality applies to a legal position. Following are the basic components of the principle of verticality:
ART. 1 . . . Legal guarding position must be obtained initially and movement thereafter must be legal.
ART. 2 . . . From this position, the defender may rise or jump vertically and occupy the space within his/her vertical plane.
ART. 3 . . . The hands and arms of the defender may be raised within his/her vertical plane while on the floor or in the air.
ART. 4 . . . The defender should not be penalized for leaving the floor - vertically or having his/her hands and arms extended within his/her vertical plane.
ART. 5 . . . The offensive player whether on the floor or airborne, may not “clear out” or cause contact within the defender’s vertical plane, which is a foul.
ART. 6 . . . . The defender may not “belly up” or use the lower part of the body or arms to cause contact outside his/her vertical plane, which is a foul.
ART. 7 . . . The player with the ball is to be given no more protection or consideration than the defender in judging which player has violated the rules.


NFHS 4-46

SECTION 46 VIOLATION

A violation is one of three types of rule infractions which are listed and the penalty outlined in 9-1 through 13. Following are the types of violations:
ART. 1 . . . Type 1: Floor violations including basket interference by a teammate of the player attempting a field goal or free throw or goaltending a field goal and other violations, which are not connected with a free throw or try or tap for goal.
ART. 2 . . . Type 2: Basket interference or goaltending by a player at the opponent’s basket.
ART. 3 . . . Type 3: Free-throw violations other than those involving basket interference or goaltending.


NFHS 4-47

SECTION 47 WARNING FOR DELAY

A warning to a team for delay is an administrative procedure by an official which is recorded in the scorebook by the scorer and reported to the head coach:
ART. 1 . . . For throw-in plane violations, as in 9-2-10, 10-2-1c.
ART. 2 . . . For huddle by either team and contact with the free thrower, as in 10-2-1d.
ART. 3 . . . For interfering with the ball following a goal as in 10-2-1e.
ART. 4 . . . For failure to have the court ready for play following any timeout as in 10-2-1f.


NFHS 4-48

SECTION 48 WARNING FOR COACH/TEAM CONDUCT

A warning to a head coach/bench personnel for misconduct is an administrative procedure by an official, which is recorded in the scorebook by the scorer and reported to the head coach.
ART. 1 . . . For conduct, such as that described in Rule 10-5, Articles 1 (a, b d, e, f), 2 and 4, the official shall warn the head coach unless the offense is judged to be major, in which case a technical foul shall be assessed. NOTE: A warning is not required prior to calling a technical foul.
ART. 2 . . . For the first violation of Rule 10-6-1, the official shall warn the head coach unless the offense is judged to be major, in which case a technical foul shall be assessed. NOTE: A warning is not required prior to calling a technical foul.

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