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Basketball Rules Fundamentals – NFHS

Basketball Rules Fundamentals – NFHS


1.5.1: Rules fundamentals are clearly outlined in descriptive material. When these are thoroughly understood, the chance of making an error in decision on some infrequent and uncommon situation is greatly reduced. All of the rules are based on these few fundamentals. Mastery of them enables the official to base the ruling on logic rather than on memory of the proper ruling for each of the hundreds of situations that may arise. The basketball fundamentals are: 

  1. While the ball remains live, a loose ball always remains in control of the team whose player last had control, unless it is a try or tap for goal. 
  2. Neither a team nor any player is ever in control during a dead ball or jump ball, or when the ball is in flight during a try or tap for goal. 
  3. A goal is made when a live ball enters the basket from above and remains in or passes through unless canceled by a throw-in violation or a player control foul. 
  4. The jump ball, the throw-in and the free throw are the only methods of getting a dead ball live. 
  5. Neither the dribble nor traveling rule operates during the jump ball, throw in or free throw. 
  6. It is not possible for a player to travel during a dribble. 
  7. The only infractions for which points are awarded are goaltending by the defense or basket interference at the opponent’s basket. 
  8. There are three types of violations, and each has its own penalty. 
  9. A ball in flight has the same relationship to frontcourt or backcourt, or inbounds or out of bounds, as when it last touched a person or the floor. 
  10. Personal fouls always involve illegal contact and occur during a live ball, except a common foul by or on an airborne shooter. 
  11. The penalty for a single flagrant personal or flagrant technical foul is two free throws and disqualification plus awarding the ball to the opponents for a throw-in. 
  12. Penalties for fouls are administered in the order in which the fouls occurred. 
  13. A live-ball foul by the offense (team in control or last in control if the ball is loose) or the expiration of time for a quarter or extra period, causes the ball to become dead immediately, unless the ball is in flight during a try or tap for goal. The ball also becomes dead when a player-control foul occurs. 
  14. The first or only free-throw violation by the offense causes the ball to become dead immediately.
  15. A double personal foul involves only personal fouls and only two opponents, no free throws are awarded and the ball is put in play at the point of interruption. A double technical foul involves only technical fouls and only two opponents, no free throws are awarded, and the ball is put in play at the point of interruption. 
  16. The official’s whistle seldom causes the ball to become dead (it is already dead). 
  17. “Continuous motion” applies both to tries and taps for field goals and free throws, but it has no significance unless there is a foul by the defense during the interval which begins when the habitual trying or tapping movement starts and ends when the ball is clearly in flight. 
  18. Whether the clock is running or is stopped has no influence on the counting of a goal. 
  19. A ball that touches the front face or edges of the backboard is treated the same as touching the floor inbounds, except that, when the ball touches the thrower’s backboard, it does not constitute a part of a dribble. 
  20. If the ball goes through the basket before or after a player-control foul, the goal shall not be counted. 


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